Saturday, July 03, 2010

Author Jefferson's "Freudian Slip"

Thomas Jefferson revealed a Freudian slip, according to preservation scientists at the Library of Congress. Even while declaring America's independence from England, Jefferson had difficulty re-training his mind to free itself of monarchial rule.

In an early draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson wrote the word "subjects" whenever he referred to the American people.  He then erased that word and replaced it with "citizens," a term he used repeatedly throughout the final draft.  The LOC released news of the struck word for the first time on Friday, July 2.

Fenalla France, a research chemist at the Library, said her lab made the discovery last year by using hyperspectral imaging, which employs a high resolution digital camera that compiles a series of images to highlight layers of a document.  Some of those layers reveal erased text and even fingerprints that pop into view on a computer screen.

In switching from "subjects" to "citizens," France said it appears Jefferson used his hand to wipe the word out while the ink was still wet. A distinct brown smudge is apparent on the paper, although the word "subjects" is not legible without the help of the digital technology.

"This has been a very exciting development," France said, calling the findings "spine-tingling."
Historic, handwritten documents reveal clues about the past that word processors cannot illuminate, said James Billington, librarian of Congress.

"It shows the progress of his mind. This was a decisive moment," Billington said. "We recovered a magic moment that was otherwise lost to history."

Accompanied by police escort, the document was unveiled outside its oxygen-free protective case for the first time in 15 years for an additional round of hyperspectral imaging. It normally can only be viewed through a 130-pound oxygen-free safe.

Donning a pair of white researchers' gloves, Maria Nugent, director of the Library of Congress' top treasures collection, slowly lifted a piece of off-white corrugated cardboard to reveal the rough draft of the Declaration, which includes handwritten corrections by both John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.

"That's a pretty good editorial committee," said Billington, who was present for the procedure. The rough draft was written on two sheets of white legal-sized paper, on both sides of the sheets.

The document was returned to the library's vault on Friday after the testing. A copy of the rough draft of the Declaration can be viewed online at


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